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Abstract Sphere

New Paradigm Technology

The root cause of the effectiveness limiting of existing telecommunication technologies is the method of receiving signals in the presence of interference. This method, called the “maximum likelihood principle”, is based on a probabilistic assessment of the real transmitted signal. This assessment is performed on the basis of observation of mixture of signal and noise at the input of the demodulator. It is assumed that the bandwidth of the noise spectrum is exactly the same as the bandwidth of the signal. Explanation of existing systems operation is presented in Fig. 1.

Transmitter / Modulator and Receiver / Demodulator have the same lists and samples of used signal forms. The task of the receiver, when it receives the recurrent signal, is to decide which of the signal forms from this list it observes at the channel output at the current moment of time. This is performed by comparing the degree of similarity of the observed noisy signal
form with the standards from the receiver's list (maximum likelihood rule). The most similar standard is considered the received signal. Any of the known methods can be used to assess the degree of similarity. These methods include:
- correlation similarity assessment (Hilbertian metric);
- mutual distance assessment (also Hilbertian metric);
- code distance assessment (Hamming distance) and many other metrics.

All these methods are equivalent in terms of the inevitability of erroneous decisions (BER – Bit Error Rate). A non-zero probability of error leads to occurrence of the fundamental limit -
Capacity, which was described by C. Shannon. To increase the capacity it is necessary to increase the transmitter power (increase the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver input) or expand the bandwidth of the signal spectrum. These are very expensive and extensive ways to improve the efficiency of telecommunications. They brought modern principles and practices of
information transmission systems architecting to a dead end. All resources provided by nature
have been exhausted. Specific efficiency indicators of information transmission systems have practically not increased over the past 100 years! 

IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND: In all existing systems, Receiver / Demodulator is forced to make decisions based on the observation of noisy samples under the conditions of noise, not eliminated from the mixture.

The essence of our innovation is illustrated in Fig. 2 and consists in finding a way to completely eliminate noise at the input of the Receiver / Demodulator before it has to make a decision. This is equivalent to receiving interference-free channels. Shannon showed and proved that the bandwidth of such channels is infinite. The speed of information transfer can be arbitrarily high, and the reliability of decision-making by the Receiver / Demodulator can be absolute.

We have developed two new mathematical procedures (see Fig. 2): Frequency preprocessing and Solver-Separator - a mathematical method for sterile separation of signal and noise.
Our methods operate with all kinds of possible interference in various channels if a few simple requirements for the signals used are met. Potential technical problems include increased requirements for the synchronization of the transmitter and receiver time scales and the achievement of high precision of discrete measurements at the Solver-Separator input. But these problems already have a solution.

IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND: we use the same a priori information about useful signals as existing systems do. Specifically, we know: the moment of the beginning, the duration and the shape (form) of all possible signals.
Our result became possible due to the development of a new mathematical method of orthogonal decomposition of any implementation of noise, with any spectral-time characteristics. This decomposition makes it possible to accurately reproduce the shape of the
noise realization and to separate it from the signal. The separated noise can be used for further processing if it contains signals from other sources, operating in the same physical resource of channel (for Multichannel systems).

Despite the apparent simplicity, the information transfer technology that we developed and tested on mathematical models allows us to obtain the following main results:

1. Significant (tens of times) reduction of the required transmitter power while maintaining reliability and other communication quality indicators. This is equivalent to not less than a tenfold reduction in the unit costs of information transmission, due to the increase in the communication distance and the saving of the used frequency band.
2. Essential (in dozens and hundreds of times) increase in the data transfer rate while maintaining the existing frequency-energy balance of the channels.
3. Repeated increase secrecy and security of data transmission.
4. Creation of new principles for organizing multi-channel communication and multiple access systems. This will allow to increase several times the number of simultaneously served subscribers in the fixed physical resource of group channels. As a result - a multiple reduction in the cost of creating and operating mobile networks. 
5. Intensification of the use of satellite channels, which will allow to increase several times the number of transmitted data without putting new repeaters into Earth orbit.
6. Significant increasing of the reliability and speed of data transfer between remote objects (for example, submarines) under natural and deliberate interference.
7. Improving the sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of radar and navigation systems, etc.

New Paradigm: About
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